Uberification 2016

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What is Uber

Uber Technologies Inc. is an American multinational online transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco. Uber develops, markets, and operates the Uber mobile application on Android, IOS and Windows operating systems. The Uber app connects consumers with Uber drivers using their phone’s GPS capabilities, letting both parties know each other’s location, and allowing consumers to submit a trip request to Uber drivers[1]. As of August 2016, the service was available in over 76 countries and 500 other cities worldwide[2].

How much does Uber cost

Each ride has a base fare, per kilometer and per minute on top of that. Every city has a different price. Moreover, Uber operates on demand and supply principles, utilizing surge pricing if demand is higher than supply. This is more likely after sporting events, holidays or even after extreme weather, where the price will skyrocket. The cost of a trip can be multiplied by a factor of 9, questioning the affordability of Uber. The company uses surge pricing to encourage more drivers to drive during peak times[2]. Nevertheless, Uber on average is cheaper than the comparable cab ride, as it cuts out a lot of overhead costs that comes with running a fully-licensed and regulated taxi service.

Comparison of rates for different levels of Uber Services:

Uber rate in 2016

Uber’s Global Expansion

Uber's Expansion and Rivals over the World

Uber’s rapid expansion is currently focused on Asia. However, Uber’s growth in Asia hasn’t been smooth or easy. In large foreign markets such as China and India, locally grown competitors say they hold a much larger market share than Uber. Locally grown competitors claim that they have a deeper understanding of the culture even though Uber usually hires general managers with local experience[3].

Uber's Service Lines

Uber offers four different service lines, Economy, Premium, Accessibility and Carpool.

Economy – Everyday rides that are always smarter than a Taxi (UberX, uberXL, UberSELECT)

Premium – Whether business or pleasure, these luxury rides help you make an entrance (UberBlack, UberSUV, UberLUX)

Accessibility – Rides that are accessible for wheelchairs or come equipped with car seats

Carpool – Share the ride – and the cost – with other riders heading your way (uberPool)

How Uber works

Learn the Uber Basics
Walkthrough of the Uber private car service in Chicago

Uber operates through a smartphone app or web browser. The passenger calls for an Uber car with a smartphone via the Uber app. Both passenger and driver can see each other's picture and profile on the app which requires both parties to accept one another before any rides are arranged[1]. The app then uses GPS to guide the driver to the rider, and on to the rider's destination. Uber calculates the estimated fare ahead of time and transfers the money electronically. Payment is taken automatically from the passenger’s card on file and to ensure no one skips out the fare.

Uber versus traditional taxi firm

Uber versus traditional taxi firm

Uber created an automated, consistent process for booking rides. This process works in every city served by the ride-sharing titan, is cash-free and requires no language skills. For consumers, this is an incredibly enticing proposition.

Why is Uber successful

1) High liquidity Uber centralizes almost everything, including their drivers and platform. Uber drivers are treated as an independent contractor as opposed to employees. Services on mobile platform such as payments, driver verification and vehicle location are centralized too[2].

2) Speed In rapidly changing times, a company’s speed in innovation is inevitable. Uber has a high speed in gathering assets and expanding globally. Furthermore, they grow horizontally in its markets, expanding its product line rigorously. They react quickly to changes, looking into the possibility of developing an autonomous self-driving car industry[3].

3) Psychology of Convenience Uber delivers better value than local taxis without increasing its price. Uber has a simple psychological appeal which spares us time and effort in hunting for a taxi. Besides, it costs less than local taxis[4].

Story Behind Uber

About 6 years ago, a company called UberCab made a splash in San Francisco by letting us hail a car with our smartphone. Since then, Uber has successfully turn black-car service to a formal and “legal” business. The idea behind this business was simply derived from the want of an efficient way to get a taxi.

On a snowy Paris evening in 2008, Garret Camp and Travis Kalanick had trouble hailing a cab. Thus, they came up a simple idea, tap a button, get a ride. The original pitch involved splitting the cost of a driver, a car, parking spot alongside an iPhone app[5].

  • In March 2009, Camp has a prototype of Uber app, and the name was UberCab.
  • In June 2009, Kalanick was hired as the Ubercab’s chief incubator take care of the company through the San Francisco launch.
  • In January 2010, Ubercab hit the road of New York City to test the service. At that time, they only had three cars.
  • In March 2010, Ryan Graves become Uber’s General Manager.
  • In July 2010, Ubercab goes live on Android and IOS platform, and change its name to Uber.
  • In August 2010, Ryan Grave become CEO but steps down in december of the same year, passing the position to co-founder Travis Kanlanick.
  • In 2011, Uber invades Seattle, Boston, Chicago, and Washington DC, and started to expand internationally.
  • As Uber expands into new cities, the company faces regulatory opposition in all shapes and sizes.
  • In September 2013, California becomes the first state to regulate ride-sharing services, benefitting companies such as Uber and its competitor, Lyft.

At present, Uber has spread like wildfire globally and currently operates in over 66 countries and is valued at approximately $50 billion. It is still fighting with its competitors as well as regulatory opposition worldwide.

What is Uberification

With the success of Uber, many companies began to imitate Uber’s business model. The efficient on-demand mobile service which is now coined Uberification.

On-demand Service

One of the key aspects of Uberification is the on-demand feature facilitated by technology. As more and more consumers desire the immediate gratification of receiving something on-demand, the popularity of this business model has grown world-wide. Business Insider defines it as “the economic activity created by technology companies that fulfill consumer demand via the immediate provisioning of goods and services[6]."

Sharing Economy

What is the sharing economy?

In general, business to business(B2B) and business to customer(B2C) are the two major business models. B2B business refers to the situation where one business makes a commercial transaction with another company. The B2C business model refers to business transactions directly conducted between a company and the end-users of the products or service.

Different from the B2B and B2C business models, the Uberification effect creates on-demand service that turns into a new sharing economy, redefining the way society accesses resources. This pushes companies and consumers to rethink the value of all under-utilized property. Uberification includes the sharing of creation, production, consumption of goods and service by different people and organizations[1].

The Popularity of Sharing Economy

PwC Report
PwC Report

The major disruption caused by Uberification happening across the automotive, hospitality, entertainment & media, and technology industries have different names such as, Collaborative Consumption, Access over Ownership, “On-Demand” or “Peer-to-Peer” and most commonly the Sharing Economy. According to the PwC survey, 44% of US consumers are familiar with the Sharing Economy, and the more familiar they are with the services the more excited they feel; and nearly 1/5 US adult say they have participated in sharing economy as a consumer; 7% say as provider. Among those who have engaged in Sharing Economy transactions, 9 % of them have tried it in form of entertainment and Media, 8% in Transportation, 6% in hospitality and 2 % as Retail services[2].

Collectively, this business model is changing the way consumers access goods and services, impacting the value generated through saved time and money.

Benefits of Sharing

The sharing economy include ODMS empowers the buying power of customer and selling power of the entire business market. It has the following benefits[3].

  • Job Creation: The sharing economy empowers millions of people to unlock the value of their time, skill and talent. It stimulates a new work base for freelancers, reducing idle labor. Although the sharing economy may not provide a traditional job, it provides a flexible schedule, along with a reduced accreditation and skill requirement.
  • Efficient Use of Labor: It provides the average layman a quick, part-time job on his or her leisure time. This is a much more efficient use of labor, allowing everyone the ability to participate in this flexible and casual labour force.
  • Convenience: With the on demand mobile service, customers are more likely to place orders. Unlike shopping on computer browsers, ODMS provides an easier processing system. Fewer clicks are required to access the specific good or service consumers are looking for.
  • Sharing Matters: It helps people of lower class to have better living standard. People who cannot afford expensive goods can have access to those shared properties at a much lower price. On the other hand, the owner of those shared assets will have less expenses on maintenance, tax and storage.
  • Resource Utilization: It is a more efficient way of resources utilization, by better matching the demand and supply in a particular business segment. For instance, Uber drivers are matched with customer demand. The more demand there is, the more drivers will be able available, greatly increasing the efficiency of customer targeting, reducing idle time between trips.
  • Environmentally Friendly: The sharing economy emphasizes re-use/sharing rather than absolute ownership. People can use product/service when needed, which results in less waste, pollution and maintenance costs.

Issues and Concerns

This part will introduce the current issues and challenges of Uber. By analyzing Uber critically, this will lead to the corresponding dark sides of sharing economy.

Uber Current Situation


By November of 2015, Uber was involved in 173 lawsuits in the U.S alone [4]. Most of them are from taxi drivers, taxi companies and governments. Aside from the U.S, Uber was on the ropes around the world. As of mid-2015, protests had been staged in Germany, Spain, France, and the UK[5]. In Asia, major markets such as Japan and South Korea, Uber was either completely banned or partial banned. The following diagram represents the situation of Uber around the globe.

Distribution of Legalization in the world

Uber has created an image of an aggressive business expanding without regard to government regulations. Its unwillingness to follow existing government regulations has led to its banishment from many countries. However, Uber still continues to operate in some of these countries and cities. Moreover, some news indicated that Uber hired investigators to dig up dirt on journalists who scrutinize the company [6]. Currently, Uber is trying to repair the relationship between the company and public media.

Battle with Traditional Taxi Industry

French taxi driver protest against Uber turns violent

In 2014, Uber announced to enter into Toronto taxi industry resulting in an intensive protest against Uber from taxi drivers. After 2 years, this battle between Uber and the traditional taxi industry still wages on. A recent news article from the Toronto Sun, a Toronto taxi driver seeks injunction against Uber [1]. According to the article, last year, the city pursued an injunction with no success as the judge dismissed the case. However, a taxi driver is to going to court to seek an injunction on Uber, claiming that the current legal landscape is different from last year. Canada isn't the only country see this battle between the Taxi industry and Uber. In other countries, such as France, the protests has escalated further, taking a violent turn. CNN reported that thousands of taxi drivers created a traffic jam near airport in protest of Uber. This created travel chaos, ultimately leading to individuals resorting to violence in some case. Express ways were shut down by burning tires and passengers heading for flights had to walk hundreds of meters to access airport terminals.

This kind of news is being reported all around the world. Taxi drivers argue that Uber has broken the industry regulations such as lack of background checks, licences, and training. However, Uber treats themselves as the revolution of the taxi industry. This battle will wage on until the problems surrounding the legalization of Uber around the world are solved.

Rapid Change in the Market


Uber caters to many different customer segments with their varying services with Uber BLack, Uber X, Uber SUV and Uber Taxis. Generally, the main customer segements of Uber are catered to individuals who do not own a car and seek a cost-efficient cab at their doorstep[2]. Based on the customer segment analysis, customers of Uber are less brand-loyal and the switching cost is low[3]. Uber has many strong competitors that provide similar services, making customer retention more difficult. Didi in China and Lyft in North America are two major competitors. News from Fortune presented that Lyft received $1 billion in investments [4]. GM being one of the investors plans to develop an on-demand network of self-driving cars in partnership with Lyft. Additionally, according to the Wall Street Journal, Didi Chuxing, China’s Rival to Uber, recveived $7 billion in funding. [5].

Uber is facing a market that is filled with strong competitors and less brand-loyal customers. The competition between rivals in the market is extremely price sensitive.

With the ever changing market, Uber is facing immense competition with competitors such as Lyft and Didi receiving substantial investments.

Uber Current Issue

Two main issues regarding Uber being Satfey and Privacy will be investigated in this portion.


Safety concerns is a key issue for the two participating parties in a Uber ride, the Uber driver and passenger. From driver's perspective, the safety and sercuirty of their well-being are of concern. Through different public media resources, the robberies targeting at Uber drivers are not rare. For example, a gunman robbed an Uber driver at gunpoint in Los Angeles, taking his credit cards and driver’s license[6]. On the other hand, Uber drivers may not be covered for damages in the events of a collision[7]. Based on Steve Kee’s opinion, a spokesperson for the Insurance Bureau of Canada, although Uber provides insurance to passengers and other vehicles on the road, Uber drivers themselves are probably not covered. It is Uber drivers’ own responsibilities to purchase vehicles insurance from selected auto brokers. From Uber passengers perspectives, there was a lot of violence and criminals such as assaults and sexual assaults. Recently, a news presents that a Uber driver killed 6 people in Michigan. Lack of background check from Uber is considered to be a significant issue to affect passenger safety[8]. On a website, called "Who drives you?", the comprehensive list of incidents involving Uber and Lyft is listed[9]. Having a look at the list, the criminals includes deaths, assaults, sex assaults and many other kinds of criminals.

User Privacy

Based on the privacy agreements, Uber will gather users’ phone numbers, personal identification information, GPS tracking history and other important information. The Washington Post had criticized Uber’s potential privacy issues[10]. Any information leak will result in a disaster. Furthermore, in the privacy agreements, Uber emphasizes that it can use your personal information or usage information that include locations, emails, credit card information, names or IP addresses and others. It is not easy to fully trust that a company that may utilize information beyond the scope of providing their services.

Dark Sides of Sharing Economy

Uber’s current issues will be investigated and used to reveal the negative side of the sharing economy.

  • Less-Protective Regulations: For now, most of sharing economy companies tend to operate in a grey area without fully implemented regulations. With less regulations, less third-party institutions will involved in transactions, which means there is less protection if participants’ rights are hurt. In most situation, government and corresponding specific institutions will act as a supervisor to ensure each participant’s rights. However, in sharing economy, lack of regulations will lead to less protection for every part involving in sharing economy.
  • Fragile power of trust: Sharing economy is built up with trust between service providers and customers. Most platforms have a two-directions review system to enhance trust based on customers’ and service providers’ reputations. However, this kind of system cannot prevent damages such as vandalism. Moreover, the individual providing the service will get the take the blunt of the damage as no regulation has specified the roles and standards.
  • Implicit Utility Applicability: The boundary between commercial and pleasure use is not clear in sharing economy. In most cases, less-frequent, small-scale and local use utility will not be charged with tax. For example, renting a spare house frequently to strangers that connected through online platform will not be taxed in current situation. Allowing such behaviour will result to decrease of revenue through tax, which may be harmful for whole society.
  • Avoidance of Workers’ Rights: Most employees working on sharing economy platforms are regarded as self-employed employees. Most of them will not be able to get benefits like minimum-wage or overtime benefits. Employees have less ways to combat against these companies if their Rights are breached.
  • Sharing Economy is not a Fair Trade: Some criticizers argues that sharing economy extracts most of the value created by the users as corporate revenue.

Uberification in Our Daily Lives

Today, there is a tremendous range of applications embracing uberification. These applications go beyond just the transportation industry such as Uber. AirBnB is a very popular hospitality/travel service that is widely used. Some other industries experiencing a boom of Uberification include Delivery & Logisitcs, Food & Beverage, Home Services, Health and Beautify, Entertainment, education, and even money loaning! Below are some examples of different uberification applications available today.



“Couchsurfing is a service that connects members to a global community of travellers.”[11]Essentially, you pick a part of a world you want to travel to and are looking for accommodation. The Couchsurfing platform allows you to find a place to stay, for free!

Couchsurfing’s values include “Share Your Life, Create Connection, Offer Kindness, Stay Curious, Leave it Better Than You Found It.”[11]This is a global community of over 10 million people across 200,000 cities creating an endless network of places to see, and people to meet1.

“We envision a world where everyone can explore and create meaningful connections with the people and places they encounter. Building meaningful connections across cultures enables us to respond to diversity with curiosity, appreciation, and respect. The appreciation of diversity spreads tolerance and creates a global community,”[11] CS.

How it Works

Begin by creating a profile. Fill this with things such as “your lifestyle, your mission, and what’s important to you.” This is all so other Couchsurfers can learn more about you.

Next, explore your own city. Many cities have “a weekly event that is usually held at a local bar or coffee shop.”[11]

When you’re ready, it is time to surf the world. Search the destination you wish to explore and browse all the local couches available! Once you’ve decided on a few, “send a Couchrequest for the dates you’ll be there.”[11] Then wait for a reply from your host.

Finally, you can make “your couch, spare room or air mattress available to travelers.”[11] Simply go under the Couch Information tab to set your couch status.



“Vayable is changing the way people experience the world.” [12]

Vayable enables “locals to use their time and knowledge to earn a living by generating new sources of income, while creating a better world where people can experience richer, more meaningful lives.”[12] Traveler’s get to explore a culture through the guidance of a local. From history to sightseeing, the experiences available at Vayable are endless. Local artists, photographers, explorers and everyone else on Vayable creates these experiences that are offered to anyone who is interested. Booking on Vayable helps empower these Insiders to “earn a living from their passions, knowledge and skills.”[12]

Vayable Quality Guarantee ensures “Vayable Insiders go through an extensive evaluation so that you know you are in good hands.”[12] Customer Support is available at all times. “Before, during, and even after your trip,” Vayable customer service is able to assist any time. Payments are all processed by Vayable, so no cash is exchanged. Their “seamless and secure payment system means your money is safe and your trip is confirmed quickly.”[12]

How it Works

Vayable allows you to explore the various experiences available in cities across the world. These include Paris, New York, London, Barcelona, Rome, San Francisco and many more. Simply create an account, browse the available experiences, and request a booking. Once the host confirms the booking, the payments will be processed through the Vayable platform. When the day comes, enjoy the unique experience offered by your chosen Insider Experience!



What are your options when you go on vacation, but can’t take your dog with you? Well the two options usually present are one, leave them in a kennel with many other dogs, or beg a family or friend member to take care of them. Neither option seem appealing? Well this is where DogVacay comes in! DogVacay connects you to other dog loving sitters!

DogVacay consists of a community of more than 25,000 sitters.[13] On each sitter’s profile you’ll be able to see their review by previous guests, and how much they charge. There are also the size of pets they are able to accommodate, amenities of their place, and of course photos!

Benefits of DogVacay

  • Easy to Use - Create an account, search sitters by zip code, and make a reservation online.[13]
  • Effortless Communication – Our site, iOS, and Android apps make it easy to stay in touch with your sitter and get photo and video updates.[13]
  • Secure Online Payment – We hold your payment until your reservation is confirmed, and you’ll never have to worry about cash.[13]
  • One-on-one attention – your pet stays with a responsible sitter in a safe cozy home (yours or theirs). Belly rubs and playtime guaranteed![13]
  • 24/7 support – Our Concirege team is here around the clock to answer questions, help with last-minute bookings, and support our sitters.[13]
  • All pets welcome – whether you have an average-sized mutt, large breed, puppy, senior dog, or kitty, we have the perfect sitter for the job.[13]

DogVacay Peace of Mind Promise

You can have peace of mind, knowing that all sitters have gone thorough an extensive vetting process. “Every sitter goes through a rigorous approval process before they can join our community.”[13] Moreover, every reservation includes 24/7 customer support with daily photo updates from the sitter! Premium pet insurance is included as well covering “up to $25,000 in vet bills per pet.”[13]



Pick a task, literally, pick any task you can think of! There will likely be someone out there willing to do it. That is exactly what TaskRabbit is for. Linking you, to a community of people will do complete just about any task you can think of. From cleaning your house, to moving your stuff, to even waiting in line, your options are endless.

How it Works

  • Pick a task – select from a list of popular chores and submit your request. This allows TaskRabbit to instantly find a tasker in your area to help.[14]
  • Get Matched – choose a same-day appointment or a future time that suits your schedule and we’ll match you with the right tasker for the job.[14]
  • Get It Done – manage your booking directly in the app – chat with your tasker, get accurate arrival times, and pay electronically when the job is complete.[14]

Payments and Pricing

At TaskRabbit, you won’t deal with cash between you and your Tasker. Secure payments are done directly through the app with credit or debit card once the task is complete.4 Pricing is transparent, with set hourly rates. Understandably, plans change, so if you need to reschedule, you are able to do so for free with at least 24 hours notice.4

Trust and Safety

At TaskRabbit, “Taskers undergo an extensive background check and in-person onboarding before joining the community.”[14]

Quality and Commitment

At TaskRabbit, trust and safety are their top priorities. Any job completed by a Tasker is “insured up to $1 million”[14] per job. Customer support is also available 24 hours a day, whenever in need.



An online community that allows you to acquire skills in through short lessons that you can complete at your own pace. With 643 classes that are free, you are able to test and see if SkillShare works for you. Classes range from creative crafts and design, to technology and even business. With a community of over 7,000 classes, you are bound to find one that peaks your interest! [15]


Anyone can teach a SkillShare class, as long as they adhere to the Publishing Guidelines.[15] Teachers are able share their knowledge and skills while earning supplemental income on the side. On average, teachers ear $3,000/year with top teachers earning $30,000 plus a year! [15] Begin by creating bite-sized classed filmed at home. Build a channel to grow your reach and following to students and earn revenue!

How it Works

  • Learn at your own pace – Watch classes on your own schedule, anytime, anywhere.[15]
  • Watch short lessons – lessons are bite-sized with most classes under an hour.[15]
  • Learn by doing – create projects and build a portfolio of work. [15]

Other Notable Uberification Applications

The above mentioned Uberification apps just grazes the tip of the iceberg. JustPark is a community that allows you to connect to people who are renting out a parking space they have. In Vancouver, there is Zipcar, EVO carshare, Car2Go, all allowing you to access a large car-sharing network. Fon is community of wi-fi sharing. What about food? There’s an application called LeftoverSwap, where you can exchange food that you may have. Money? You got it! The Lendingclub is a US peer-to-peer lending company. Postmate does on-demand deliver from all your favourite local places, utilizing couriers to deliver goods. Have equipment that you don’t use often? Splinster connects you to locals that may have goods such as bikes, surfing gear, and snowboarding gear. Rent for the day rather than making the large initial investment.

The growth for Uberification applications are endless. What do you think could be the next big Uberification application?

Uberification in other Countries



DIDi Taxi is a Chinese company, which was founded in 2012. The company provides multiple services over 400 major Chinese cities. [16]Using big-data, DiDi is taking on creating a solution for China's transportation industry. Right now, The company provide services include taxi hailing, private car hailing, Hitch (social ride-sharing), Chauffeur, DiDi Bus, DiDi Test Drive etc. The company has completed a total number of 1.43 billions rides in 2015 due to the advantage of first entry. [17]

Xiao Zhu

Similar to Airbnb, Xiao Zhu provides a mirroring platform in China. By increasing the growth of the supply end, Xiaozhu is devoted to building an orderly platform for C2C (consumer to consumer). Up until July 2015, the platform included more than 50,000 various accommodations and about 10,000 individual house owners in 200 different Chinese cities. Moreover, according to the article, “the number of transactions have been increased by four times compared with that in early 2015”. [18]A difference from Airbnb, Xiaozhu pays more attention on the business operations rather than providing just the platform. Currently, Xiaozhu is providing vertical integration services through landlord service-training, house keeping and searching for high quality houses. [18]

Car Inc.

CAR Inc. was founded in 2007 in Beijing. The purpose of the company is to provide car rental and other services for individuals and corporate clients in China. More specifically, the company offers short-term rentals for local and inter-city travel needs. It also provides various value-added services, such as 24/7 roadside assistance, auto insurance and additional coverage, one-way rental, vehicle delivery, GPS navigation system, and child seat services. As of December 31, 2015, the company has a total number of 91,179 vehicles; a network of 738 directly operated service locations; and 236 service locations in China. The company was formerly known as China Auto Rental Inc. and changed its name to CAR Inc. in June 2014.[19]


Like Xiaozhu, another hospitality uberification platform in china is Mayi. Mayi Duanzu provides apartments and resorts to families traveling within China. More importantly, Customers have the ability to cook and do laundry at every accommodation on the company site. The difference between Mayi and Airbnb is that Mayi involves real-estate agents in rental deals, while Airbnb directly matches travelers with landlords. Currently, Mayi provides potential accommodation choices in almost 100 different Chinese cities with 10,000 hosts.[20]


Deep Learning
Number of drivers

Ola Taxi

Ola Taxi was founded in december 2010. In 2015, the company has raised a total funds of $1.2 billion. By 2015, the company has a pool of 55000 taxi drivers. Although the number of Ola’s drivers are almost 2 times as much as the number of Uber drivers, Uber has gained 12 times more value than ola’s . The potential reason for this value difference is because Ola has expanded their services on delivering food and grocery products to customers’ house. However, there are not enough drivers to meet the demand of the service. As a result, the majority of Ola’s customers start to use Uber because of insufficient number of drivers. [1]

Drive U

Anoter uberification platform in india is Drive U. Unlike Ola and Uber, Drive U drivers provide transportation service through using customer’s car. On other words, “DriveU allows users to hire drivers on the go”.[2] On March 2016, the company has raised approximately $1 million from Unitus Seed Fund and undisclosed angel investors from Silicon Valley. [3]

Reasons for popularity


Governmental regulations- Some local governments in China are offering incentives for more thoughtful consumptions. For example, the drivers can have the advantage of free parking when someone else has shared the car with them.[4]

Traditional cultures- Currently, behaviours of elderly Chinese people have influenced the younger generations’ actions. For example, the Chinese elders people always queue for hours to get a few cents off the price of eggs because they want to save money. After several years, when their children buys an Audi car, they also begin to investigate how to make money through peer to peer sharing services. [4]

Mental effect- this point is especially for younger generations in china. Through investigating the Maslow theory of needs, most of younger generations in China place themselves in the “esteem” position. They are looking for respect from others through communicating the level of sophistication to other people. Sharing economy actually provides a way to show themselves to others. For example, people are more likely to perceive you as a rich people if you drive, BMW, Audi or Benz in china. [4]

Surrounding environment- Since Chinese people perceive gaining respects from others as the number one objective for themselves, they pay more attention on their work rather than their dally life. Therefore, most of Chinese people are more willing to “outsource” the duty of managing their daily life to other third parties. By adopting this Uberification platform, Chinese people can have the ability to “outsource” these duties to the platform. At the same time, Chinese people can feel more positive or confident with their life since they can put all their attentions on work. [4]

Establishment with key stakeholders- Chinese companies are more likely to over-plan their costs on operations than American companies. The reason for this is because American companies will bring in the key stakeholders when they want to plan for the cost, like suppliers. However, Chinese companies will always plan for the operation costs through internal business meetings. Hence, the Chinese senior managers are more willing to over plan for the costs in case that there are some unpredictable incidents in the future. Therefore, through using the sharing economy approach, Chinese companies can have more accurate costs for operations since there will be an exact costs associated with renting a machine or other operating parts from other company.[4]


Government regulations- Currently, India's government has implemented several regulations that have supported the growth of local sharing economy companies. They have shown support for programs such as Digital India and Skills India, leading to a positive impact on the environment. [5]

Besides that, the government also provides financial supports to the foreign companies in order to gain an overall GDP increase in the future. According to the research, “The foreign investment in access of 49% has been allowed on case to case basis with Governmental approval in cases resulting in access to modern technology in the country”.[6] Because foreign brands have better support than homegrown brands, local brands feel the pressure and need to expand the services. An example is the Ola expansion into food devilvery services mentioned earlier. However, because the supply is not match with the demand of the service, Uber has captured a market share of 35-40% in India. After that, ola taxi begin to use “dirty approaches” in order to win the customers back.[7]
As the video has shown, in order to win back Ola’s market share, the company began to let company drivers to sign up for fake account on Uber's platform. At the end of last year, Uber sued Ola for $7.5 million to compensate for lost revenue and goodwill, alleging the Indian market leader created about 94,000 fake user accounts with the ride-hailing service and used them to make more than 405,000 false bookings.[8]

Internet penetration and Mobile proliferation

Internet penetration- the idea of the Internet penetration is still nascent in India. Only 19.2% of Indian people have the ability to adopt the Internet for their daily life, compared to 86.8% in US and 89.9% in UK. However, the Internet adoption in India is increasedat a rate of 47.2% in 2012 to 2014. More importantly, India has held the highest growth rate when comparing with other countries. Therefore, with continually increases in the Internet adoption in India, consumers have the ability to use the sharing economy platform inside India. [5]

Mobile Proliferation

Mobile proliferation- The mobile proliferation has been a key driver for the sharing economy companies in all countries including India. According to the graph on this section, the market size for mobile phone in India has been increasing exponentially.[9] The number of mobile subscribers is expected to grow dramatically as the cost of a smartphones is decrease. Since most Uberification applications are developed for mobile phones, the idea of mobile proliferation has triggered the popularity of Uberification applications. [5]

Uber in Vancouver

Vancouver is the only city that does not have Uber. Despite the legality, Uber has operated in Toronto since 2012. According to the article, Toronto government has passed new rules for ride-hailing apps in early 2016. The rules have slightly raised the base fare for an Uber ride and let traditional taxis charge surge pricing for rides booked through apps. However, Uber did not worry about the rules because Uber had more loyal customers than traditional taxi. “In Quebec, Uber has 450,000 users, mostly in Montreal.” [10] Back to November 2012, the PTB told several Uber drivers that they were breaking the law. At the same time, PTB will deactivate these Uber drivers’ licenses if they didn’t charge the minimum fare. Besides that, PTB had posted this warning on a government website.
According to our findings, our group has concluded that government regulations would be the only reasons why uber is not in Vancouver. During the Vancouver’s 2014 election, the taxi industry in vancouver has provided $5000 political donations.[11] Because of this financial support, Vancouver government set regulations for uber in order to keep the monopoly position of the local taxi industry. Besides that, most of the uber drivers do not have a taxi license. This also leads Canada government to set regulations on these “illegal” taxi drivers. However, since other provincial governement also face this problem, our group will rank this reason as second reason because the reason does not explain why uber is not in vancouver.

Uberification of Everything

Ars delivers with Amazon Flex for a day

Uberification of Amazon Flex and other online retailers

Amazon Flex

Amazon Flex operates as an on-demand model similar to Uber’s taxi regime. Amazon Flex currently available in many US cities including New York, Baltimore, Miami, Dallas, Austin, Indianapolis, and Atlanta. Private contractor’s access Flex via an app, use their own transport, and commit to a ‘block’ of two to eight-hour shifts a day. Drivers make $18-$25/hr delivering packages for Amazon[1].


Uber announced UberRUSH in 2014, which also operates like an on-demand model similar to Uber’s taxi regime. UberRUSH is an on-demand delivery network that makes getting things more convenient, affordable and reliable than picking it up[2]. It is similar to a typical courier service, summoning up a vehicular courier, quoting their consumers a price via UberRUSH app and the courier hauls the item from Point A to Point B[3].

Uberification of Mcdonald and other fast food restaurant chains


McDonald’s digital innovation team tries to reinvent the customers’ experience and take the lead on the restaurant of the future. For example, McDonald operates McDelivery, which is a service that delivers food to the customer’s food. Service was introduced in parts of United States and is currently available in many Asian, Middle Eastern and Latin American countries. In 2009, 24 hour McDelivery was introduced in Hong Kong. Logistics are outsourced to Rixon Delivery. The delivery workers were hired on a self-employment basis. Firstly, delivery staff chose to work up to 16 hours a day as to earn a higher commission[4]. Secondly, McDonald targets each delivery to be completed in 30 minutes. Therefore, staff has to drive their motorbikes at high speed to deliver in a timely manner. According to some news reports, Rixon Delivery refused to compensate injured staff in motorbike incidents. These delivery staff’s compensation benefits and rights are concerned similar to Uber drivers as both parties are hired as an independent contractor.


Besides taxi industry, Uber is also stepping into the food delivery services in Canada, specifically in downtown Toronto. UberEats’ items range from approximately $8 to $12 each, currently partnering with 11 restaurants to start with. It claims that average order takes 35 minutes from start to finish [5]. There is no need to tip and the payment method is the same as how consumers pay for Uber drivers[6].

Uberification of air transportation industry

Uberification of private aviation industry may be favored in the future, following the significant changes in transportation industry. Nowadays, booking a private jet using available services is comparable to flying first class[7]. This attracts corporate executives and business people to choose their services. Although there is several operating on-demand private jet services such as SurfAir, JetMe and FlyBeacon, BlackJet shut down in 2016. It seemed that these companies’ financial status relied on a smaller group of consumers comparing to Uber. BlackJet CEO said that shutdown is caused by low membership sales, critical team member stepped down and financial opportunities delayed.

Uberification of driverless cars

Uber is keenly aware that the majority of the cost of a journey comes from the driver’s salary, and has been considering driverless cars in their future business project plan[8]. Their ultimate goal is to end car ownership and thus increase their profits even more. The reason Uber could be expensive is that you are not just paying for the car but for the driver too[8]. Uber is partnering with Pittsburgh's Carnegie Mellon University for the test of driverless cars[9]. Uber is likely not the only transportation provider looking at the prospect of firing its staff and replacing them with robots. Lyft announced to partner with Chevrolet to use driverless cars as well[9]. Nevertheless, Uber seems to be one of the few prepared to articulate that desire with high level of liquidity and assets. The downside of uberification of driverless cars is that a massive number of lower-paying jobs disappears and car related services companies collapse. According to The Bureau of Labour Statistics, 884,000 people are employed in motor vehicles and parts manufacturing, and 3.02 million in the car dealer and maintenance industry[10]. Car related services such as automobile insurance market, automobile wholesale market, automobile maintenance market and parking industry will decrease in profit as demand for their services drops significantly. In addition, the government may expect lower revenue from speed tickets as there will be more driverless cars on the road in the coming future.

Uberification of waste management

In the capital of Senegal, Dakar has poor waste management where at least 80% of the people in the city use pit latrines. Pit latrines have numerous dire consequences such as negative impact on the health of locals and extremely costly to empty. As a result, an Uber-like SMS waste management service has come to drastically decrease sanitation costs in Dakar. The service could reduce the cost of emptying pit latrines by nearly half, and customers can sell their waste to be turned into energy. This innovation in waste management has helped emerging countries to adopt sustainable development goals, including accessing adequate and affordable sanitation. Now the text service is comparable to the Uber taxi app, with a database of 65,000 customers who send an SMS whenever they need their pits emptied[11].

Uberification of health care and medical practices

There are several people who need medical help, just as there are several doctors who can deliver them. Connecting both patients and doctors quickly is the real challenge. The traditional health care system of going to the hospital that is located at a distance is rigid[12]. In addition, there is a queue time if you go to a crowded clinic. It is not easy for someone in urgent or quick need. Can there be smart phone based app that helps patients in emergencies as an outbreak of allergy or as simple as a cold, to receive quick, convenient, and affordable medical help from a nearby doctor who is available to visit his home?

Uberification of corporate real estate

There are currently, many apps, websites, and companies looking to disrupt the corporate real estate industry. New and future talks in the industry have included apps that search for agents closest to a home that a buyer is interested in[13]. This is of course, for a chance to access the home as quickly as possible. However, real estate still remains a people business. Buyers will still want to view homes in person more than once if they want to make a purchase. Besides, inspections and the loan process will need agents to help guiding buyers to the finish line through a 30-60 day process[13]. Apps, gadgets and web startups may solve some annoyances of the industry, but it won’t replace agents anytime soon.


  1. Amazon Flex. (n.d.). Retrieved August. 1, 2016, from https://flex.amazon.com/
  2. UberRUSH. (2016). Retrieved August. 1, 2016, from https://rush.uber.com/
  3. Gross, D. (2014, April 8). Uber gets into delivery game with Rush. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2014/04/08/tech/mobile/uber-rush-delivery/
  4. Wong, A. (2009, August 18). Out-sourced delivery service – a lesson to learn from Mcdonald. Retrieved from http://csr-asia.com/csr-asia-weekly-news-detail.php?id=11789
  5. Strauss, M. (2015, May 14). Uber’s latest delivery: Food to go. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/international-business/us-business/ubers-latest-delivery-food-to-go/article24426493/
  6. UberEats. (2016). Retrieved August. 1, 2016, from https://ubereats.com/
  7. Degeler, A. (2015). Meet the companies ‘Uberfying’ America’s private jet market. Retrieved from http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/07/11/blackjet-jetme-surfair-uberify-private-aviation/#gref
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hern, A. (2015, February 3). Are driverless cars the future of Uber? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/03/are-driverless-cars-the-future-of-uber
  9. 9.0 9.1 Lee, D. (2016, May 20). Uber joins race for driverless cars. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-36339340
  10. Kanter, Z. (2015, January 27). How Uber’s Autonomous Cars Will Destroy 10 Million Jobs And Reshape The Economy by 2025. Retrieved from http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2015/01/27/how-ubers-autonomous-cars-will-destroy-10-million-jobs-and-reshape-the-economy-by-2025-lyft-google-zack-kanter/
  11. Hussain, M. (2015, August 12). ‘We want to turn poo into gold’: how SMS is transforming Sengal’s sanitation. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/aug/12/poo-uber-sms-senegal-sanitation?CMP=share_btn_tw
  12. Ghoudhuri, G. (2016, March 14). Uberification of Health Care. Retrieved from http://healthaddaindia.blogspot.ca/2016/03/uberification-of-health-care.html
  13. 13.0 13.1 Parker, R. (2016, March 7). Uberification of corporate real estate? A future for the on-demand office. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/uberification-corporate-real-estate-future-on-demand-rob-parker-mricsc
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